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Institut de minéralogie, de physique des matériaux et de cosmochimie
UMR 7590 - UPMC/CNRS/IRD/MNHN

Sylvain Bernard

Scientific Expertise

 

Organic Biosignatures in Rocks

Advanced Fossilization Processes

Meteorite and Comet Organics

Hydrocarbon Generation Processes

 

 

Contact Details

Office : Site Buffon, 2th Floor, Room 203

Telephone : 01 40 79 35 32

Mail : sylvain.bernard@mnhn.fr

 

Analytical Skills

  - STXM, XANES Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Electron Microscopy, P-T and Fluid-Flow Experiments

 

Professional Resume

  - Since 2010: CNRS Researcher in mineralogy/geochemistry

  - 2009-2010: Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the GFZ (Helmholtz Zentrum Potsdam, Germany)

 

Educational Background

  - Ph.D. in Fundamental and Applied Geochemistry, University Paris Diderot & IPGP - 09/12/2008

 

Publications

[°] indicates publications signed as a first author by a PhD student or a postdoc fellow.

 

- [57] Menez B., Pasini V., Guyot F., Benzerara K., Bernard S. & Brunelli D. Mineralizations and transition metal mobility driven by organic carbon during low-temperature serpentinization. Lithos, in press.

- [56] Bernard S., Daval D., Ackerer P., Pont S. & Meibom A. Reply to 'No substantial long-term bias in the Cenozoic benthic foraminifera oxygen-isotope record'. Nature Communications 9, 2874, 2018.

- [55] Le Guillou C. Bernard S., De La Pena F. & Le Brech Y. XANES-based quantification of carbon functional group concentrations. Analytical Chemistry 90, 8379-8386, 2018.

- [54] [°] Alleon J., Bernard S., Le Guillou C., Beyssac O., Sugitani K.. & Robert F. Chemical nature of the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool microfossils. Geochemical Perspectives Letters 7, 37-42, 2018.

- [53] [°] Vinogradoff V., Bernard S., Le Guillou C. & Remusat L. Evolution of interstellar organic compounds under asteroidal hydrothermal conditions. Icarus 305, 358-370, 2018.

- [52] [°] Changela H.G., Le Guillou C., Bernard S. & Brearley A.J. Hydrothermal evolution of the morphology, molecular composition and distribution of organic matter in CR chondrites. Meteorite and Planetary Sciences, doi: 10.1111/maps.13045, 2018.

- [51] Miot J., Bernard S., Bourreau M., Guyot F. & Kish A. Experimental fossilization of Archaea encrusted by Fe-phosphates. Scientific Reports 7, 16984, 2017.

- [50] Bernard S., Daval D., Ackerer P., Pont S. & Meibom A. Burial-induced oxygen isotope re-equilibration of fossil foraminifera explains ocean paleotemperature paradoxes. Nature Communications 8, 1134, 2017.

- [49] [°] Jauvion C., Charbonnier S. & Bernard S. A new look at the shrimps (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeoidea) from the Middle Jurassic La Voulte-sur-Rhône Lagerstätte. Geodiversitas 39(4), 705-716, 2017.

- [48] [°] Gueriau P., Rueff JP., Bernard S., Kaddissy J., Goler S., Sahle C., Sokaras D., Wogelius R.,  Manning P., Bergmann U. & Bertrand L. In situ synchrotron-based X-ray Raman scattering discriminates carbonaceous compounds in ancient and historical materials. Analytical Chemistry, doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.7b02202, 2017.

- [47] Daval D., Bernard S., Rémusat L., Wild B., Guyot F., Micha J.S., Rieutord F., Magnin V. & Fernandez-Martinez A. Dynamics of altered surface layer formation on dissolving silicates. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 209, 51-69, 2017.

- [46] [°] Alleon J., Bernard S., Le Guillou C., Daval D., Skouri-Panet F., Kuga, M. & Robert F. Organic molecular heterogeneities can withstand diagenesis. Scientific Reports 7, 1508, 2017.

- [45] [°] Vinogradoff V., Le Guillou C., Bernard S., Binet, L., Cartigny, P., Brearley A.J & Remusat L. Paris vs. Murchison: Impact of hydrothermal alteration on organic matter in CM chondrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 212, 234-252, 2017.

- [44] [°] Han J., Horsfield B., Wirth R., Mahlstedt N. & Bernard S. Oil retention and porosity evolution in organic-rich shales. AAPG Bulletin, doi: 10.1306/09221616069, 2017.

- [43] [°] Alleon J., Bernard S., Le Guillou C., Daval D., Skouri-Panet F., Pont S., Delbes L. & Robert F. Early entombment within silica minimizes the molecular degradation of microorganisms during advanced diagenesis. Chemical Geology 437, 98-108, 2016.

- [42] [°] Alleon J., Bernard S., Le Guillou C., Marin-Carbonne J., Pont S., Beyssac O., McKeegan, K.D. & Robert F. Molecular preservation of 1.88-Ga Gunflint organic microfossils as a function of temperature and mineralogy. Nature Communications 7, 11977, 2016.

- [41] [°] Guériau, P., Bernard S. & Bertrand L. Advanced synchrotron characterization of paleontological specimens Elements 12, 45-50, 2016.

- [40] Bertrand L., Bernard S., Marone F., Thoury M., Reiche I., Gourrier A., Sciau P. & Bergmann, U. Emerging approaches in synchrotron studies of materials from cultural and natural history collections. Topics in Current Chemistry 374, n°7, 2016.

- [39] Remusat L., Piani L. & Bernard S. Thermal recalcitrance of the organic D-rich component of ordinary chondrites. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 435, 36-44, 2016.

- [38] Barré P., Plante A.F., Cécillon L., Lutfalla S., Baudin F., Bernard S., Christensen B.T., Eglin T., Fernandez J., Houot S., Kätterer T., Le Guillou C., Macdonald A., van Oort F. & Chenu C. The energetic and chemical signatures of persistent soil organic matter. Biogeochemistry, doi: 10.1007/s10533−016−0246−0, 2016.

- [37] Kish A., Miot J., Lombard C., Guigner J−M., Bernard S., Zirah S. & Guyot F. Preservation of archeal surface layer structure during mineralization. Scientific Reports 6, 26152, 2016.

- [36] [°] Mirvaux B., Recham N., Miot J., Courty M., Bernard S., Beyssac O., Davoisne C., Sougrati M., Demortière A., Guyot F., Tarascon J.M. & Larcher D. Iron Phosphate / Bacteria composites as precursors for textured electrode materials with enhanced electrochemical properties. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 163 (10), A1−A10, 2016.

- [35] Bernard S., Benzerara K., Beyssac O., Balan E. & Brown Jr. G.E. Evolution of the macromolecular structure of sporopollenin during thermal degradation. Heliyon 1, e00034, 2015.

- [34] Rouchon V., Bernard S. Mapping iron gall ink penetration within paper fibres using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 30, 635-641, 2015.

- [33] [°] Alleon J., Bernard S., Remusat L. & Robert F. Estimation of nitrogen-to-carbon ratios of organics and carbon materials at the submicrometer scale. Carbon 84, 290-298, 2015.

- [32] [°] Robin N., Bernard S., Miot J., Blanc-Valleron M.M., Charbonnier S. & Petit G. Calcification and diagenesis of bacterial colonies. Minerals 5, 488-506, 2015.

- [31] [°] Saldi G.D., Daval D., Guo H., Guyot F., Bernard S., Le Guillou C., Davis J.A. & Knauss K.G. Mineralogical evolution of Fe-Si-rich layers at the olivine-water interface during carbonation reactions. American Mineralogist 100, 2655-2669, 2015.

- [30] [°] Iniesto M., Zeyen N., López-Archilla A.I., Bernard S., Buscalioni A.D., Guerrero M.C. & Benzerara K., Preservation in microbial mats: mineralization by a talc-like phase of a fish embedded in a microbial sarcophagus. Frontiers in Earth Science 3(51), 1-13, 2015.

- [29] Bernard S. & Papineau D. Graphitic carbons and biosignatures. Elements 10(6), 345-350, 2014.

- [28] Bernard S. & Horsfield B. Thermal maturation of gas shale systems. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Science 42, 635-651, 2014.

- [27] Bernard S. & Horsfield B. Reply to comment on “Formation of nanoporous pyrobitumen residues during maturation of the Barnett Shale (Fort Worth Basin)”. International Journal of Coal Geology 127, 114-115, 2014.

- [26] [°] Li J., Bernard S., Benzerara K., Beyssac O., Allard T., Cosmidis J. & Moussou J. Impact of biomineralization on the preservation of microorganisms during fossilization: an experimental perspective. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 400, 113-122, 2014.

- [25] [°] Le Guillou C., Bernard S., Brearley A.J. & Remusat L. Evolution of organic matter in Orgueil, Murchison and Renazzo during parent body aqueous alteration: in-situ investigations. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 131, 368-392, 2014.

- [24] Romero-Sarmiento M.F., Rouzaud J.N., Bernard S., Deldicque D., Thomas M. & Littke R. Evolution of Barnett Shale organic carbon structure and nanostructure as a function of increasing maturation. Organic Geochemistry 71, 7-16, 2014.

- [23] [°] Kuga M., Carrasco N., Marty B., Marrocchi Y., Bernard S., Rigaudier T., Fleury B. & Tissandier L. Nitrogen isotopic fractionation during abiotic synthesis of organic solid particles. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 393, 2-13, 2014.

- [22] Miot J., Li J., Benzerara K., Sougrati M.T., Ona-Nguema G., Bernard S., Jumas J-C. & Guyot F. Formation of single domain magnetite by green rust oxidation promoted by microbial anaerobic nitrate-dependent iron oxidation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 139, 327-343, 2014.

- [21] El Albani A., Bengtson S., Canfield D.E., Riboulleau A., Rollion Bard C., Macchiarelli R., Ngombi Pemba L., Hammarlund E., Meunier A., Moubiya Mouele I., Benzerara K., Bernard S., Boulvais P., Chaussidon M., Cesari C., Fontaine C., Chi-Fru E., Garcia Ruiz J.M., Gauthier-Lafaye F., Mazurier A., Pierson-Wickmann A.C., Rouxel O., Trentesaux A., Vecoli M., Versteegh G.J.M., White L., Whitehouse M. & Bekker A. The 2.1 Ga old Francevillian biota: biogenicity, taphonomy and biodiversity. Plos One 9(6), e99438. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0099438, 2014.

- [20] [°] Le Guillou C., Remusat L., Bernard S., Brearley A.J. & Leroux H. Amorphization and D/H fractionation of kerogens during experimental electron irradiation: comparison with chondritic organic matter. Icarus 226(1), 101-110, 2013.

- [19] [°] Li J., Benzerara K., Bernard S. & Beyssac O. The link between biomineralization and fossilization of bacteria: Insights from field and experimental studies. Chemical Geology 359, 49-69, 2013.

- [18] [°] Pasini V., Brunelli D., Dumas P., Sandt C., Frederick J., Benzerara K., Bernard S. & Ménez B. Low temperature hydrothermal oil and associated biological precursors in serpentinites from a Mid-Oceanic Ridge. Lithos 178, 84-95, 2013.

- [17] Bernard S., Wirth R., Schreiber A., Schulz H-M. & Horsfield B. Formation of nanoporous pyrobitumen residues during maturation of the Barnett Shale (Fort Worth Basin). International Journal of Coal Geology 103, 3-11, 2012.

- [16] Bernard S., Horsfield B., Schulz H-M., Wirth R., Schreiber A. & Sherwood N. Geochemical evolution of organic-rich shales with increasing maturity: a STXM and TEM study of the Posidonia Shale (Lower Toarcian, northern Germany), Marine and Petroleum Geology 31(1), 70-89, 2012.

- [15] [°] Couradeau E., BenzeraraK., Gérard E., Moreira D., BernardS., Brown Jr. GE., López-García P. An early-branching microbialite cyanobacterium forms intracellular carbonates. Science, 336(6080) 459-462, 2012.

- [14] [°] Galvez M.E., Beyssac O., Benzerara K., Menguy N., Bernard S., Cox S.C. Micro and Nano-textural evidence of Ti(-Ca-Fe) mobility during fluid-rock interactions in carbonaceous lawsonite-bearing rocks from New Zealand. Contribution to Mineralogy and Petrography 164(5), 895-891, 2012.

- [13] [°] Galvez M.E., Beyssac O., Benzerara K., Bernard S., Menguy N., Cox S.C., Martinez I., Johnston M.R. & Brown Jr G.E. Morphological preservation of carbonaceous plant fossils in high grade metamorphic rocks from New Zealand. Geobiology 10(2), 118-129, 2012.

- [12] Bernard S., Horsfield B., Schulz H-M., Schreiber A., Wirth R., Vu T.T.A., Perssen F., Könitzer S., Volk H., Sherwood N. & Fuentes D. Multi-scale detection of organic and inorganic signatures provides insights into gas shale properties and evolution. Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry, 70(S3), 119-133, 2010.

- [11] Bernard S., Benzerara K., Beyssac O., Brown Jr. GE. Multiscale characterization of pyritized plant tissues in blueschist facies metamorphic rocks. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 74, 5054-5068, 2010.

- [10] Bernard S., Beyssac O., Benzerara K., Findling N. & Brown Jr G.E. XANES, Raman and XRD signatures of anthracene-based cokes and saccharose-based chars submitted to high temperature pyrolysis. Carbon, 48, 2506-2516, 2010.

- [09] [°] Corvisier J., Brunet F., Fabbri A., Bernard S., Findling N., Rimele G., Barlet-Gouédard V., Beyssac O. & Goffe B. Raman mapping and numerical simulation of the distribution of CaCO3 polymorphs in experimentally carbonated Portland cement cores. European Journal of Mineralogy, 22(1), 63-74, 2010.

- [08] Bernard S., Benzerara K., Beyssac O., Brown Jr GE., Grauvogel-Stamm L. & Duringer P. Ultrastructural and chemical study of modern and fossil sporoderms by Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 156, 248-261, 2009.

- [07] [°] Miot J., Benzerara K., Morin G., Bernard S., Beyssac O., Larquet E., Ona-Nguema G., Kappler A. & Guyot F. Transformation of vivianite by anaerobic nitrate-reducing iron-oxidizing bacteria, Geobiology, 7, 373-384, 2009.

- [06] [°] Miot J., Benzerara K., Morin G., Kappler A., Bernard S., Obst M., Férard C., Skouri-Panet F., Guigner J.M., Posth N., Galvez M. & Brown Jr G.E. Iron biomineralization by neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 73(3), 696-711, 2009.

- [05] Chopin C., Beyssac O., Bernard S. & Malavieille J. Aragonite-garnet intergrowths in eclogite-facies marble, Corsica. European Journal of Mineralogy, 20/5, 857-865, 2008.

- [04] Bernard S., Beyssac O. & Benzerara K. Raman mapping using advanced line-scanning systems:  geological applications. Applied Spectroscopy, 62/11, 1180-1188, 2008.

- [03] Bernard S., Benzerara K., Beyssac O., Menguy N., Guyot F., Brown Jr G.E. & Goffe B. Exceptional preservation of plant fossils in high-pressure metamorphic rocks. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 262/1-2, 257-272, 2007.

- [02] [°] Simoes M., Avouac JP., Chen YG., Singhvi AK., Wang CY., Chan YC., Jaiswal M. & Bernard S. Kinematic analysis of the Pakuashan fault tip fold, west central Taiwan: Shortening rate and age of folding inception. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, B03S14, 2007.

- [01] Bernard S., Avouac JP., Dominguez S. & Simoes M. Kinematics of fault-related folding derived from a sandbox experiment. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, B03S12, 2007.

 

 

Main Collaborations  

  - Preservation of biosignatures in rocks: O. Beyssac (IMPMC, Paris, France), K. Benzerara (IMPMC, Paris, France), J. Marin (UJM, St Etienne, France), D. Papineau (UCL, London, UK), S. Charbonnier (CR2P, Paris, France), A. El Albani (IC2MP, Poitiers, France), G.E. Brown Jr (Stanford, CA, USA)

  - Hydrocarbon generation in gas shales: B. Horsfield (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany), R. Wirth (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany), J.N. Rouzaud (LGENS, Paris, France), M.F. Romero-Sarmiento (IFPEN, Paris, France)

  - Aqueous alteration of meteorites and irradiation of organics: C. Le Guillou (CNES, Paris, France), L. Remusat (IMPMC, Paris, France), F. Stalport (LISA, Paris, France), A. Brearley (UNM, NM, USA)

  - Micro-organism biomineralization and fossilization: J. Miot (IMPMC, Paris, France), F. Skouri-Panet (IMPMC, Paris, France), A. Kish (MCAM, Paris, France), S. Zirah (MCAM, Paris, France)

  - Organic/clay/carbonate interactions in soils: P. Barré (LGENS, Paris, France), S. Derenne (METIS, Paris, France), A. Huguet (METIS, Paris, France)

  - Hydrothermal mineral weathering: D. Daval (LHyGeS, Strasbourg, France), F. Guyot (IMPMC, Paris, France), T. McCollom (LAPS, CO, USA)

  - Cultural heritage and degradation mechanisms: V. Rouchon (CRC, Paris, France), L. Bertrand (IPANEMA, Soleil, France), C. Moulherat (Quai Branly, Paris, France)

24/09/18

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